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Main article: Woodland period. Main article: Coles Creek culture. Main article: Mississippian culture. Main article: Fort Ancient culture. Main article: Plaquemine culture. Hopewell traditions. Adena culture. Coles Creek culture. Mississippian culture. Plaquemine culture. See also: Archaeology and the Book of Mormon. Preucel, Stephen A. Archaeo News. Stone Pages. Retrieved 5 September Rees, Ian W. Retrieved Barry Lewis, Charles Stout eds. Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces. University of Alabama Press.

Louisiana prehistory. Archived from the original on New Georgia Encyclopedia. Peregrine Archaeology of the Mississippian culture: a research guide. Garland Publishing. Chapter 1, p. Gibbon; Kenneth M. Ames Archaeology of prehistoric native America: an encyclopedia. D ". New York Times. December 20, April 5, September 25—30, ] ". In Basler, Roy P. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Horace Thayer, New York. Eisenberg Indian Mounds of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, pp.

Retrieved May 19, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

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Digital Legend. Stanford University. Stephens' conclusion that the Central American stone ruins were not of any great antiquity was overlooked by excited LDS readers. Ohio history, Volume The Garden of Eden, it seems, is now definitely located. The site is in Ohio, "Adams" county, to be more precise The Rev. Landon West of Pleasant Hill, O. In support of this startling claim the Rev. West quotes Scripture and refers to Job "By His spirit.

He hath garnished the heavens; His hand hath formed the crooked serpent. The Common. Details that fell outside of West's lifetime were hard to fit into the book: his son Dan West became the founder of the Heifer Project charity, and his accomplishments no doubt helped preserve the memory of his father's Garden of Eden. The Commercial. Retrieved May 17, Ensign LDS Church. Mormons in Transition IRR. Pre-Columbian North America. Related Genetic history Pre-Columbian era.

Adena Culture. Criel Grave Creek. Mounds State Park. Hopewellian peoples. Goodall Site Norton Mound Group. Late Woodland cultures. Mound Builders List of archaeological periods North America. Johns culture. Coles Creek and Plum Bayou cultures. Late Woodland period List of archaeological periods North America. Mississippian and related cultures. She also learned how gender structures both the traditional lifestyles and the changes that tourism and transnationalism have brought.

In her comprehensive and accessible study, she reveals how Taquileans used their isolation, landownership, and communal organizations to negotiate the pitfalls of globalization and modernization and even to benefit from tourism. This multi-sited ethnography set in Peru, Washington, D. The first book about tourism in South America that centers on traditional arts as well as community control, Weaving a Future will be of great interest to anthropologists and scholars and practitioners of tourism, grassroots development, and the fiber arts. They have each spent more than twenty years as archaeologists in this area, and they have a strong interest in public archaeology.

This has been demon- one cannot argue for an association among these probos- strated by controlled excavations which have linked cidean, bovid, and cervid remains. Four are from wet- In a palynological study at the nearby Dykstra Peat lands, one from an alluvial context along the Illinois River, Farms, Kim obtained two 14C dates that gave some and a sixth from alluvial sediments of the Embarras River evidence for the age of the peat accumulation.

The earliest in Coles County. Beta - These two dates convinced Graham and odon remains Anderson ; Riggs Riggs Graham that the majority of the vertebrate re- reports that it was impossible to estimate the mains from the massive peat unit dated to the early Ho- number of bison represented in this Holocene unit because locene.

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Based on this evidence, Cattail Channel seemed to of the indiscriminate method employed by the workers to be an excellent locality for confirming the presence of bi- reach the underlying mastodon bonebed. He did describe son in Illinois during the early Holocene. CAMS - , confirming the Early Although the remains were mixed, the author Holocene presence of bison in northwestern Illinois. CAMS - Bruce McMillan middle of the peat unit at the Markman Peat Mine was also mine whether or not the bison remains in the gravel zone dated. CAMS - pre-date the Holocene.

There appears to be a discrepancy with the date Three sites, based on their context and associations, that Kim reported from near the middle of the have yielded Wisconsin-aged bison elements. One comes major peat at the Dykstra Farm ca. Bison is represented by a single element, a phalanx Markman ca. Dykstra Farm and the cf. Complexity between 20,—30, cal yr B. When sulted from little or no peat formation or even removal Hay examined the tooth and its associated fauna during the mid-Holocene. For now, that hypothesis can only e. Alton during the early s from exposures at a limestone Remains of two bison were found in alluvial fills of quarry atop the Mississippi River bluffs.

Thirteen species bedrock channel scars at Ottawa in La Salle County. This of extinct and modern forms were identified after the col- site is fully described in the accompanying paper by Will- lection was transferred to the U. National Museum. Ex- iam Turnbull. The assemblage comes from an exposure in a gravel anerucabys; Symbos promptus? Fossils are canadensis, Geomys bursarius, and Ursus americanus.

Leighton, the Illinois state geologist, subse- however, extinct species Castoroides ohioensis, Megalonyx quently relocated the site in and described the context sp. He speculated that since this is a upper black silt zone is almost surely Holocene in age, based karst area, a plugged sink may have formed a pond that on the fact that all of the vertebrates are species that were would have attracted the vertebrates. Modern mapping of found here historically. In contrast, the underlying gravel the area Grimley suggests that the fossils were found zone seems to contain both Pleistocene and Holocene as- near the contact between the Wisconsin-aged Roxana Silt semblages.

A mandible of a domestic dog Canis familiaris and the Ft. Russell member of the Illinois till McKay a; and a complete right parietal of Homo sapiens as well as a b. The Sangamon Geosol developed in the upper por- number of modern small mammals found with the extinct tion of the Ft.

Russell member Grimley Judging species listed above suggest that the Pleistocene and Ho- from the number of species at the Alton locality that have locene components are mixed in the lower fossil-bearing different habitat requirements, the site seems to be either a zone.

Specific contextual data are lacking for individual mixed assemblage or one that accumulated over an extended fossils precluding any attempt to determine if horizontal period of time. Bison el- Episode. The Archaic est extinct species, B. Jeffrey J. The scapula is apparently no longer surements of the bison teeth from Alton recorded by Hay available for reexamination, and there are no field photo- with bison teeth from Jones Spring in Missouri, graphs of it in situ.

A student project utilized what remained teeth that were associated with a partial skull with horn cores of the specimen for isotopic study to determine whether the of Bison latifrons. The measurements of the Alton speci- specimen was bison or elk, apparently without definitive re- mens are almost identical to those for the bison teeth from sults. Based on this comparison, my in- intriguing, it cannot be confirmed.

Vanderford The investigator thinks fragment is more likely an Equus tooth than that of a bovid. The Couch Cave, the Galena Fissure, and the Alton local- only note of caution here is that the tooth was present when ity all appear to pre-date the Holocene, representing sites no other animal bone survived, and when examined at the that contain bison along with other Pleistocene fauna. Illinois State Museum, the tooth seems to be highly miner- alized.

The question then is whether or not the tooth could Archaeological Records have been redeposited. Again, this find may provide evi- A total of 67 archaeological sites provided evidence dence for bison procurement during the Late Archaic but is of bison remains. They tend to be concentrated along the not definitive. Having said this, there is every likelihood that there Sites will be considered under five major cultural periods was some opportunistic hunting of bison during the Late beginning with the Late Archaic. Archaic Period. Harn and Martin, about these associations. At the Tree Row site 11F53 in this volume.

In addition, there is evidence for bison pro- Fulton County, a bison scapula was found that appeared to curement at the Osceola site Overstreet and the be associated with a Late Archaic midden. These data paper as having many features, including 94 human burials indicate that bison were present and suggest that these beasts Meinkoth Thomas Emerson, the director of the were occasionally taken by Late Archaic hunters.

The Early Woodland bison hunting from the Lonza-Caterpillar bone, very decayed, was from an Archaic period midden site in Peoria County. A full report of the discovery of a in a multi-component site Archaic, Early Woodland, bison kill at this locality is included earlier in this volume and Mississippian but was not in direct association Harn and Martin, this volume. Although the site A report of bison bones from an Early Woodland con- contained another bison scapula hoe in the Mississip- text in the American Bottom near East St.

Louis has been pian component, the location and state of preservation reassessed Evans and Evans Bruce McMillan Table 1. Comparison of modern and fossil bison B. Measurements in millimeters. Table data provided by Jeffrey J. Terrance Mar- provide raw material for an artifact None tin examined the remains in question and determined that of the long bones nor the spinous process on the thoracic none of the material was bison. With the recent publication vertebrae attain that length. Given has been corrected. Taylor noted that gests limited use of bison.

Perino — described and scapula was recovered from the mound six feet 1. A year later Frank Figure 5. Perino attributed the a very young bison found in Mound 6 of the Havana groups. Two other Middle Woodland mounds, Albany in Whiteside County Parmalee and Dickinson in Peoria County Walker produced faunal elements that were listed as probable bi- son, both listed as occurring in the mound fill but with no further description. Three village sites with Middle Woodland materials yielded a few bison elements.

In addition, Fowler a included eight elements in his faunal list for the Middle Woodland occupation at the Clear Lake site. One has to be cautious in accepting the Clear Lake site as a valid Middle Woodland association. Little control was employed by the amateur excavators, and recent dates demonstrate that there were historic-era bison at the site.

Fowler a— admits that provenances are un- Figure 3. Distribution of archaeological sites with bison remains.

Mound Builders

It appears that Baker —75 reconsidered the specimen he originally thought to be a juvenile bison and later identified it as deer. The artifact was found in a basin-shaped pit dug into the sub-floor of the mound 1. Distribution of burial pit. Deer bone and mussel shells were also recovered Middle Woodland sites from the pit. The author opined that the pit and its contents with bison remains. Bison bone is slightly more common at the Orendorf site dating approximately A. Bone scepter from Gay Mound 4 Pk Length In addition, Conrad reported to me that a certain and items cannot be assigned to specific compo- scapula hoe was found on the floor of Structure 1 at Fv, nents.

The issue of Dickson collection, came from an Orendorf Phase compo- the age of the bison at the Clear Lake site will be discussed nent on the bluff above this well-known Fulton County site in the section on Historic Period sites. Conrad He suggests that overland trade with the There is little evidence for post-Middle Woodland Missouri Basin likely produced these bison bone artifacts, bison material in Illinois prior to the early Mississippian believing that they were not procured locally. To reinforce Eveland Phase in the central Illinois valley. I have discounted this argument, he cites the presence of western Foreman one potential Late Woodland association reported in an series ceramics at the Eveland site.

The specimen, found inventories. Although difficult to judge from the illustrations, the Other reported occurrences of bison bone in associa- point appears to be a Late Woodland Lowe projectile point. The published Woodford County and a scapula, incisor, and four addi- image clearly shows longitudinal cracking where the point tional unidentified elements from the Kingston Lake site penetrated the bone, suggesting that the bone was dry and Baker ; Parmalee b.

As mentioned earlier in not living tissue when the point was embedded. It is impor- this paper, a significant number of bison remains were found tant to remember that this reported discovery came at a time by members of the Peoria Academy of Science during their when there were a number of archaeological hoaxes being s excavations at the Clear Lake site Schoenbeck , perpetrated on the American public McKusick ; Although it is not possible to sort the faunal remains Sturtevant and Meltzer ; Griffin et al.

In the Spoon River region bison bone Figure 7. It is impossible to know, , Scapula hoes were recovered from pits at based on current evidence, if there are earlier bison remains the Eveland site Brown ; Caldwell , the Charles W. Cooper site Conrad , and from a house basin at the Tree Row site Meinkoth Woodman 1 An exception may be a distinctive artifact type associated with the n. This attribu- Neumann lists one or two bison elements asso- tion to species is uncertain because the bone is so highly modified.

Given the pan-regional interaction sphere of trade networks established by the Cahokia elite, it is surprising that there is not more evidence of exchange items related to bison e. What earlier appeared to be the best evidence for exchange, the copper-stained incisors and putative skull from the mound at Mitchell, have all but been discounted.

The teeth that are part of the McAdams Collection at the Illinois State Museum have, as mentioned earlier, been identified as elk, and the skull described by McAdams defies veri- fication. Goode site in East St. Louis and a single phalanx from Tract 15a described and illustrated by Miracle — Therefore, the preponderance of evidence for procure- ment of bison or bison products during Mississippian times was in the central Illinois River valley and at scattered sites to the north. Distribution of Langford Tradition, a cultural continuum based on grit- Middle Mississippian tempered ceramic wares that spans the three centuries from sites with bison remains.

It is difficult to de- associated with the Mississippian component. There are three Langford reported from the Jensen site on the Fox River Finnegan components at sites in the Starved Rock area that have evi- , but the context is less certain given that there were dence of bison—Zimmerman, Gentleman Farm, and La again multiple components represented. At the Lundy site in northwestern Illinois, along the Apple River in Jo Daviess County, bison bones were found in three features on a Mississippian site dating ca.

Elements include fragments of a right man- dible and premaxilla, rib, lumbar vertebra, and third phalanx Feature 32 ; right patella and rib Feature 35 ; and fragments of an ulna shaft and a distal right humerus Feature The author believes that cut marks displayed on a rib and an ulna reflect that the animal was butchered and used for food.

Figure 7. Schoenbeck Collection, Illinois State Museum. In addition, the Jehalo site in Grundy County yielded a single phalanx Cross and Jeske a , there was a distal end of a humerus be- neath a burial at the Fisher site in Will County Parmalee a , and Fowler b reported four elements from the Robinson Reserve site in Cook County. Figure 8 shows the distribution of sites for this period. For the most part, bison remains are scarce in Langford Tradition sites with four or fewer elements in most sites.

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Even at the Zimmerman site, where bison bones are common, Parmalee observed that bison bones predominated in the historic componentsand were rare in the the prehistoric [Langford] components. The one anomaly for Langford Tradition sites is Gentlemen Farm, where 22 bison elements were reported. Brown et al. He does ob- serve, however, that there was a trace of historic Indian occupation on the site, represented by the occurrence of Figure 8.

Distribution two native-made gun flints. This mani- festation with sites distributed within the riparian environ- gued that the bison remains found on these eastern Oneota ments of the glacial lake plain at the southern end of Lake sites were arriving as exchange items hoes, hides from Michigan ranges in time from the early A.

Bison bone appears in the Huber herds Hollinger and Falk In addition to scapulae Phase by around A. Remains of bison have been and phalanges, Martin attributed rib sections made found at six sites—Hoxie Farm Foss and Parmalee , into bone rasps from the Hoxie Farm site Herold et al. It might be noted that at two Huber Phase Brown and Sasso , Knoll Springs Slaymaker and sites, representations of bison have been found depicted on Slaymaker , and the protohistoric Oak Forest site a clay, celt-shaped pipe from the Anker site Bluhm and Neusius —and at a seventh location, the Fifield site, Liss and on an engraved pebble from the Huber just east of Illinois in the upper Little Calumet River drainage site Herold et al.

Robert Hall has suggested that in Indiana Faulkner This pattern has led some reversed positions of the ears and horns Hall Others have ar- central Illinois. These authors believe that Oneota occupations ceased in the Lima Lake area before A. A third site, contain- ing a Late Mississippian occupation affiliated with the Caborn-Welborn Phase at the mouth of the Wabash River in far southeastern Illinois, contained a single left humerus of a bison Martin d.

The age of this component is placed at A. All but one occur either along the Illinois or Mississippi rivers. This pattern probably relates to the fact that most Historic Indian settlements that have been exca- vated occur along these major valleys. This site, dating from A. Bison elements including a skull with horn cores were reported from the Clear Lake site Schoenbeck , The samples, taken from the distal medial shaft of a left tibia and the proximal Figure 9.

Calibrated, sites with bison remains. It is difficult to as- sess whether all of the bison material from the Clear Lake site is affiliated with this Historic component. Since the Zimmerman, Ernat, and the Highlands site. Craig and Lonza-Caterpillar site with its Early Woodland bison kill Vorreyer , on the basis of features, trade materials, Harn and Martin, this volume is only a few kilometers and a scarcity of artifacts contrasted with a rich amount of distant, it would seem to make sense that bison remains subsistence debris, interpret the Highlands site as a short- might be present in earlier components at the Clear Lake term occupation devoted to ceremonial activity and feast- site.

Nevertheless, until there is definitive evidence to dem- ing. They suggest that this may have been a location for onstrate the presence of earlier bison remains at Clear Lake, Potawatomi ritual activity. Martin , who examined the bison bones excavated there by the Schoenbecks will the faunal remains, described cut marks on the bison bones be considered to belong to a Historic component that is yet that mirror what one would expect if an animal was butchered to be described. Regardless of the function of the site, the in La Salle County.

Historic components at the Zimmerman, carcass parts indicate that the animal was procured locally. Baker a; describes three bison mo- a Historic component at the Highlands site in Grundy County lars found in an ash bed that contained European trade ma- yielded bison bones. Bison represented a significant por- terials 75 feet northeast of Abbott Mound 2 Griffin and tion of the faunal inventory in the Historic components at Morgan Walthall et al.

The distance that hunting parties trav- convincingly that this was the site of a terminal seventeenth- eled from settlements varied greatly, with the extreme case century Illinois Indian winter hunting camp. Even River valley, from Rock Island County on the north to when hunting was carried out locally, methods for butcher- Randolph County to the south, contained evidence of bi- ing and processing to reduce an animal to manageable units son procurement.

Other sites—Mercer County Kelly All of these factors—trade, distance of kill from , Lima Lake Nolan et al. The historic Kaskaskia Indian village Guebert semblages containing bison remains are aware of these is- produced a few more remains including horn cores, sues and have factored these variables into their interpreta- scapula fragments, femur fragments, and a rib with an tions. In certain contexts, bison elements such as scapulae engraved representation of a bison Parmalee n. Fig- are cited as evidence for trade with bison-hunting groups ure 10 depicts the engraving, an artifact originally illus- farther west e.

The distal end of a bison tibia while in other situations researchers have observed butch- was also recovered from the archaeological excavations at ering marks on bison bone that they have interpreted as Ft. Massac on the Ohio River from a context that post-dated evidence for more localized hunting e. Colburn , Martin For this study, focused on the Holocene distribution and relative population size of bison Summary in Illinois, it is important to be able to identify those ele- Sixty-seven archaeological sites have produced re- ments that are from animals that were hunted locally, pro- mains of bison.

When interpreting bison remains from these cured extra-locally, or are merely specialized utilitarian ar- archaeological contexts, one has to keep in mind the caveat tifacts i. But since the specimen is no longer avail- able for examination, it cannot be con- sidered definitive. The Archaic compo- nent at Tree Row, dated between — 14C yr. Based on the Ottawa dates, one could argue with some confidence that small populations of bison were al- ready present in the Illinois River val- ley by the Late Archaic Period.

Tree Row then, even with the caution ex- pressed above, offers the best evidence Figure Photograph by Gary Andrashko. It should the central Illinois River valley Harn and Martin, this vol- be noted that Middle Woodland village sites to the west in ume. A bison with a projectile point embedded in the rib Missouri—Fischer-Gabbert in the Big Bend area of the Mis- cage and a second with a chert spall remaining in the trans- souri River and the Mellor site at the mouth of the Lamine verse process of a thoracic vertebra provide direct evidence River in Saline and Cooper counties Kay —57; for human intervention.

Eleven or more bison, along with ; , and in Middle Woodland sites in Platte elk and deer, were exposed by stream action where they County near Kansas City Wedel ; Adair ; had been buried by alluvial sediments. The question the Johnson —consistently contain small numbers of authors wrestled with is whether this assemblage consti- bison bones among the faunal remains. Special items such tutes a single or multiple events. The AMS dates demon- as scapulae could have been secured through exchange by strate that at least two of the bison are protohistoric in age, Illinois Middle Woodland residents from these contempo- clearly later than several bone concentrations that date to rary groups living west of the Mississippi River.

On the the Early Woodland Period. It is interesting that of the bi- other hand, considering that there are small numbers of bi- son that date to the Early Woodland Period, the two indi- son bones in mound fill and in the debris at a few village vidual bison with chert artifacts directly associated prob- sites, and given that the geologic record demonstrates that ably represent two discrete events. The individual described bison were present in the Illinois River valley, the elements by Harn and Martin from Bone Concentration 11 with a in Middle Woodland mounds could just as well represent Dickson Projectile Point embedded between the ribs dates individuals procured locally.

If the latter interpretation is between and cal yr B. The second accepted, then one is faced with explaining the paucity of individual with a chert fragment encased in the transverse bison remains in Late Woodland sites that span several cen- process of a thoracic vertebra dates between and turies following the Middle Woodland Period. Does this cal yr B. While there is a slight overlap in the reflect a more regional emphasis in social intercourse with statistical range of these dates, I think it likely that they a reorganization or breakdown in earlier exchange net- represent separate events.

Or does it simply reflect an ebb and flow of bison If these are single kills, they suggest that hunting dur- populations as they were gradually established in the Prai- ing the Early Woodland period contrasts with historic ac- rie Peninsula? Or were bison hunted but only meat was trans- counts of kills of multiple individuals. Opportunistic hunt- ported back to settlements? This is still an open question ing where single individuals are selected would leave based on the available data. I believe it is significant that dating after A.

Beginning in the Eveland Phase bison with the embedded point resulted from thrusting A. There is no evidence, however, of bison. Most of the elements were scapulae and phalan- of cut marks on the bone that would indicate that the ani- ges, with the exception of a single incisor recovered from mal had been butchered. If meat was removed from the car- the Norris Farm 26 site. A broader inventory of elements cass, cuts made with chert implements to strip the meat left was recovered from three sites associated with the succeed- little evidence on the bone itself. The ques- Conrad Contemporaneous sites in the Peoria tion is whether or not bison were being procured locally or area also demonstrate a similar pattern of yielding few bi- elements were acquired through exchange.

Scapulae were son elements. What was thought to be an exception, the recovered from three mounds, one of which had been modi- Clear Lake site in Tazewell County, has recently been shown fied extensively into a ceremonial item bone scepter , and through dating to have a Historic component that may ac- remains attributed to bison but not identified in the litera- count for many of the bison remains recorded there. One might assume that the scapulae were component at the Lundy site in Jo Daviess County, north- exchange items; however, there are at least two village sites western Illinois, provides the best evidence for an animal that yielded a few bison remains that might represent food being taken and butchered locally.

This interpretation is refuse.

So there is still some question as to whether Middle based on the diversity of elements present in the site, as Woodland people were taking bison in Illinois. Bruce McMillan — Only two sites, Tract 15a at Cahokia and the Janey B. Goode site near East St. This brief overview examines age and context series of 15 different sites between Havana and Peoria in of bison remains from Iowa, southwestern Wisconsin, and the central Illinois River valley, an assemblage that dates Missouri, regions that border northern and central Illinois. Although bison elements are never numerous, and often consist of a single bone, there is Iowa and Southwestern Wisconsin some diversity in the elements when the overall assemblage A review of late glacial and early Holocene bison lo- is viewed collectively.

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Scapulae and phalanges are repre- calities west of the Mississippi River in Iowa demonstrates sented most often; however, there are teeth, skull parts, and that bison were established early in the boreal parklands a femur. I raise this issue of the diversity of elements since and later, in the tallgrass prairie of western Iowa. Two lo- greater representation of body parts may suggest more lo- calities have yielded bison remains of late Wisconsin age. Although there are no dates for bison They include a bison identified from a faunal assemblage from geologic contexts that date to the Mississippian Pe- Craigmile local fauna in Mills County that dated riod, there are dates for bison that bracket this period.

Rhodes and a second local- on the fact that 15 Mississippian sites from the central Illinois ity, the Brayton gravel pit in Audubon County, that included River valley contain some evidence for bison, I believe it is a bison among other species in the local fauna. I discuss later some means to test this hypothesis. Dulian ; Rhodes and Semken Based Six Langford Tradition sites in the upper Illinois River on the faunal composition, the authors interpret the environ- valley, from Starved Rock to Cook County, show evidence ment surrounding these sites as boreal parklands with open of bison utilization but not to the extent that sites in the meadows.

With the onset of the Holocene and the establishment Contemporaneous Oneota Huber Phase sites on the Chi- of the tallgrass prairie, western Iowa was the scene of a cago Lake Plain also contain bison remains. Since most of number of bison kill sites and processing camps that sug- the remains are either scapulae or phalanges, it is again debat- gest that bison populations were well established in what is able as to whether these elements arrived as trade items, as referred to as the northwest Iowa Plains and the Loess Hills hoes, and as hides with hooves attached, or if they are from regions Prior Several sites along the Little Sioux animals hunted in the prairies of northeastern Illinois.

As men- River in northwestern Iowa and Pony Creek along the Mis- tioned above, potential resolution of this issue is discussed souri River in southwestern Iowa are associated with Late later. Paleo-Indian and Early Archaic hunters and foragers. The With the advent of the Historic Period, there was a sites—Simsonsen Agogino and Frankforter ; Chero- significant increase in bison as evidenced by their remains kee-Sewer Anderson and Semken ; Turin Anderson in archaeological sites of that age.

Bison remains are repre- et al. Bi- —all date between — cal yr B. McDonald son for the first time seems to have become a staple in the lists specimens representing five early Holocene Native diet. This evidence for a rather dramatic increase in bison from northwest Iowa in the collections of the Sanford bison at the beginning of the Historic Period is a pattern Museum in Cherokee, Iowa; however, this listing may du- that has been observed since the time of McAdams plicate some of the sites already mentioned.

A skull of an , and articulated years later by Griffin and Wray early bison was obtained from Indian Creek in Based on the archaeological evidence, and bolstered Pottawattamie County by Velich , who added that by the eighteenth-century descriptions of bison by French several additional bison skulls had been reported for the Jesuit missionaries such as Marquette Thwaites — same area.

He also noted that a left horn core had been , Liette Quaife — ; Hennepin Shea recovered from near Waubonsie State Park, which would — ; and La Salle Parkman — , the place it in the Nishnabotna River drainage. These early seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Illinois Coun- Holocene bison were larger than the modern form and try appear to have been the period of maximal bison popu- have been referred to as Bison bison occidentalis e.

These remains, presumably early Holocene cal yr B. An impres- continued into the late Holocene Wilson ; sive number of bison remains have been reported from a Hughes ; Hofman and Todd Hofman and Todd stretch of the Iowa River and its tributaries in Marshall and demonstrate that nearly 50 percent of postcra- Hardin counties Holven and Hill Working with lo- nial size reduction in bison took place early with a very cal collectors, Holven has assembled a collection of 75 man- rapid change between bison associated with Folsom assem- dibles that range from middle to late-Holocene in age.

None blages to those associated with later Paleo-Indian materi- of the specimens, including post-cranial elements, show any als. Folsom-age 12,—11, cal yr B. One locality did produce five com- 20 percent larger than modern bison, while Cody-age plete bison skeletons that were exposed in a cutbank, none 10,—9, cal yr B. They point out that the pattern in comm. A collector who discovered the five individu- postcranial size reduction contrasts with the more gradual als also excavated a middle Holocene bison eroding from pattern of horn-core diminution, for which a more rapid the bank of the stream at a different locality.

The temporal rate of change takes place during the mid-Holocene as docu- assignment of this latter specimen was based on horn core mented by Wilson The bi- Bison elements were also found in two late Holocene son associated with the Mud Creek fauna consisted of a archaeological sites, the M. Significantly, a pollen sample site in Plymouth County that dates — cal yr B.

Baker argues that tality and seasonality. Most bison occurred as single indi- the area was forested and not on the edge of the prairie viduals and were found in secondary contexts. They are based on the dominance of Tilia, a mesic, fire-intolerant most likely mid- to late-Holocene in age. Bison remains continued to increase in protohistoric Hall describes a complete, articulated skeleton of a and post-contact Oneota sites in western Iowa where the bison containing robust horn cores. Based on measurements assemblages demonstrate a strong orientation toward and of the horn cores he assigned the specimen to Bison dependence on bison as a meat source Tiffany and Ander- occidentalis.

The age of the bison when calibrated is son ; Falk Henning b sug- cal yr B. Wilson , however, contends that hinged in part upon the ready availability of bison and the the rapid diminution in the size of horn cores takes place increasing importance of that resource to Oneota villagers during the mid-Holocene. Multiple individu- est evidence for bison is from a depression on the backside als are exposed there at two locations along the stream chan- of the Altamont I moraine of the Des Moines Lobe where a nel in the Rognholt Valley.

Recently, Steven Kuehn of the bison was recovered that dated 10, cal yr B. Hudak Wisconsin Historical Society has sent photographs to the Bruce McMillan farther north from sites along the Mississippi and St. Croix calibrated, cal yr B. Thirteen bison bones represent- rivers in Wisconsin and Minnesota Shay A highly ing one adult male front quarter and one juvenile hind mineralized tooth found just across the Mississippi River quarter were recovered.

Edited by Timothy R. Pauketat

Of special interest was the fact from Iowa in Vernon County, Wisconsin, is identified as that two bones contained embedded projectile point tips, Bison bison. This tooth is in the U. National Museum thought possibly to be Madison points. These bones are a collections, but its age is unknown Hay Several lines of evidence suggest that prai- site across the Mississippi River and just to the southeast in rie did not reach northeastern Iowa until sometime between Jo Daviess County, Illinois Colburn Based on three and cal yr B.

Chumbley et al. By — radiocarbon years or cal yr B. Emerson cal yr B. The data described above from Late Woodland archaeological sites affiliated with Middle and Late Archaic and Mississippian contexts in the Driftless Area of northeast and Late Woodland cultures. M after A. Specifically, I speak here of what ; Crane and Griffin Calibration would Henning a has referred to as the Developmental place the age of these samples between approximately — cal yr B.

There are three regions in central and eastern Iowa cal yr B. In central Iowa there are the sites identified as to element Theler ; Wisconsin, area including sites in northeast Iowa along the Two cave sites occupied by Late Woodland peoples, upper Iowa River valley Henning a—18, Figs. A number of archaeologists and faunal analysts have located on a small tributary just off the Mississippi River in reviewed the fauna from these sites and point out that there Iowa, contained remains of bison. The range in age of these is little evidence for bison bone except for scapula hoes, components falls between and cal yr B.

Moffat the Mississippi River. The most complete record of bison Goodhue site, Hall argues that based on element from these caves and rock shelters is from the Carroll Rock representation that at least some of the bison were procured Shelter 13DB in Dubuque County, Iowa. This small locally. Based on the assumption that bison herds were lar find in St. Given the proximity of bison herds in teeth, an atlas, and five additional vertebrae from an animal southeastern Minnesota, the question that has been debated identified as Bison antiquus found in Platte County Mehl is whether Oneota groups along the Mississippi were se- , Theler and Bozhardt be- The earliest bison remains with solid contextual data lieve there is evidence for interaction between Oneota are the Bison latifrons specimens from Jones Spring in groups on the Missisisppi River with groups to the west, Hickory County Saunders — This interpretation is tant trade commodity.

He points out, however, that the nu- supported by a uranium series date of ka obtained on merous end-scrapers found at prehistoric La Crosse Oneota Mammut enamel from the base of Unit c1 McKinney sites imply extensive bison-hide preparation, suggesting that The 36 identified specimens represent five in- green hides were being returned to villages from hunting dividuals Saunders The B. Some authors have suggested cf.

This sediment column The steppe found, all in the western part of the state, except for fauna represented in the Trolinger I assemblage, dominated Kimmswick, which occurs along the Mississippi River in by horse, Equus complicatus Saunders , may rep- Jefferson County south of St. In addition, several resent a mid- to late-Sangamon-age Interglacial fauna for specimens have eroded from the Missouri River near the western Ozarks. Unlike the scant evidence for Late Pleis- Jefferson City that, based on measurements, are examples tocene bison in Illinois, there is a relatively good record for of Bison latifrons and Bison antiquus.

Limb bones submit- Missouri. Bruce McMillan Klippel The evidence that small bison herds were ever, few of those sites have been adequately investigated pushing east into western Missouri by cal yr. An exception is the Middle Woodland com- based on archaeological remains of bison at Rodgers Shel- ponent at the Burkemper site where an extensive faunal re- ter in the Pomme de Terre River basin Parmalee et al. As the mid-Holocene drying progressed no evidence for bison Styles and Purdue Most of these are in rock shelters or Styles and White , Tick Creek Cave Parmalee caves, in components that contained one to several bison and Brynjulfson Cave No.

These sites are clustered in the Truman and Stock- Two Oesch , occurred in a natural accumulation of mixed sites in Cedar County, a burial mound and an open village Pleistocene and Holocene fauna. A highly worn molar was also There are numerous records of late Holocene bison found in the Late Woodland Amity Mound in association in Missouri; however, most occur in the tiers of counties with the human burials McMillan , and two cheek that constitute the western portion of the state.

The eco- teeth were discovered in a shallow basin-shaped pit at Fly- logical regions that encompass western Missouri are, from catcher Village, a non-ceramic site that dated between — north to south, the Loess Hills, Osage Plains, and Spring- cal yr B. Pangborn et al.

The pattern of bison element frequency is , Thomas and Ray , Schmits , and Mehl almost identical to the earlier Hopewell settlements with A bison tooth right P3 from an Early Woodland only one to a few bones listed in the faunal inventories for context at Boney Spring in Benton County dated cal these sites. Steed-Kisker, the type site for which the Missis- yr B. McMillan and Lindsay ; for dates see Wood sippian complex in the Kansas City area is named, produced This is the earliest late-Holocene date for bison no bison remains, but it should be noted that bone preser- in Missouri, leading one to speculate whether or not there vation was extremely poor Wedel I raise this is a hiatus in bison records following the mid-Holocene until because Wood has argued convincingly that Vista this time.

As described above, the latest mid-Holocene date Shelter in St. Clair County, some km southeast of the for bison is from Little Freeman Cave in Pulaski County on Mississippian settlements in the Kansas City area, was a a specimen from deposits that dated cal yr B.