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It focuses on the application of the scientific principles of mechanical physics to understand movements of action of human bodies and sports implements such as cricket bat, hockey stick and javelin etc. Elements of mechanical engineering e. Proper understanding of biomechanics relating to sports skill has the greatest implications on: sport's performance, rehabilitation and injury prevention, along with sport mastery. As noted by Doctor Michael Yessis, one could say that best athlete is the one that executes his or her skill the best.

Aristotle, a student of Plato can be considered the first bio-mechanic, because of his work with animal anatomy. With the rise of the Roman Empire , technology became more popular than philosophy and the next bio-mechanic arose. This would be the world's standard medical book for the next 1, years.

The next major biomechanic would not be around until , with the birth of Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci was an artist and mechanic and engineer. He contributed to mechanics and military and civil engineering projects. He had a great understanding of science and mechanics and studied anatomy in a mechanics context.

He analyzed muscle forces and movements and studied joint functions. These studies could be considered studies in the realm of biomechanics. Leonardo da Vinci studied anatomy in the context of mechanics. He analyzed muscle forces as acting along lines connecting origins and insertions, and studied joint function. Da Vinci tended to mimic some animal features in his machines.

For example, he studied the flight of birds to find means by which humans could fly; and because horses were the principal source of mechanical power in that time, he studied their muscular systems to design machines that would better benefit from the forces applied by this animal. Vesalius published his own work called, On the Structure of the Human Body. In this work, Vesalius corrected many errors made by Galen, which would not be globally accepted for many centuries. With the death of Copernicus came a new desire to understand and learn about the world around people and how it works.

On his deathbed, he published his work, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. This work not only revolutionized science and physics, but also the development of mechanics and later bio-mechanics. Galileo Galilei , the father of mechanics and part time biomechanic was born 21 years after the death of Copernicus. Galileo spent many years in medical school and often questioned everything his professors taught.

He found that the professors could not prove what they taught so he moved onto mathematics where everything had to be proven. Then, at the age of 25, he went to Pisa and taught mathematics. He was a very good lecturer and students would leave their other instructors to hear him speak, so he was forced to resign. He then became a professor at an even more prestigious school in Padua. His spirit and teachings would lead the world once again in the direction of science. Over his years of science, Galileo made a lot of biomechanical aspects known.

Marine animals can be larger than terrestrial animals because the water's buoyancy [sic] relieves their tissues of weight. Galileo Galilei was interested in the strength of bones and suggested that bones are hollow because this affords maximum strength with minimum weight. He noted that animals' bone masses increased disproportionately to their size. Consequently, bones must also increase disproportionately in girth rather than mere size. This is because the bending strength of a tubular structure such as a bone is much more efficient relative to its weight.

Mason suggests that this insight was one of the first grasps of the principles of biological optimization. In the 16th century, Descartes suggested a philosophic system whereby all living systems, including the human body but not the soul , are simply machines ruled by the same mechanical laws, an idea that did much to promote and sustain biomechanical study.

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli embraced this idea and studied walking, running, jumping, the flight of birds, the swimming of fish, and even the piston action of the heart within a mechanical framework. He could determine the position of the human center of gravity , calculate and measured inspired and expired air volumes, and showed that inspiration is muscle-driven and expiration is due to tissue elasticity. Borelli was the first to understand that the levers of the musculoskeletal system magnify motion rather than force, so that muscles must produce much larger forces than those resisting the motion.

Influenced by the work of Galileo, whom he personally knew, he had an intuitive understanding of static equilibrium in various joints of the human body well before Newton published the laws of motion. His work is often considered the most important in the history of bio-mechanics because he made so many new discoveries that opened the way for the future generations to continue his work and studies. It was many years after Borelli before the field of bio-mechanics made any major leaps.

After that time, more and more scientists took to learning about the human body and its functions. There are not many notable scientists from the 19th or 20th century in bio-mechanics because the field is far too vast now to attribute one thing to one person. However, the field is continuing to grow every year and continues to make advances in discovering more about the human body. Because the field became so popular, many institutions and labs have opened over the last century and people continue doing research.

Refereed Journal Publications | Human Engineering Research Laboratories | University of Pittsburgh

With the Creation of the American Society of Bio-mechanics in , the field continues to grow and make many new discoveries. He opened the field of modern 'motion analysis' by being the first to correlate ground reaction forces with movement. In Germany, the brothers Ernst Heinrich Weber and Wilhelm Eduard Weber hypothesized a great deal about human gait, but it was Christian Wilhelm Braune who significantly advanced the science using recent advances in engineering mechanics.

During the same period, the engineering mechanics of materials began to flourish in France and Germany under the demands of the industrial revolution. This led to the rebirth of bone biomechanics when the railroad engineer Karl Culmann and the anatomist Hermann von Meyer compared the stress patterns in a human femur with those in a similarly shaped crane.

Inspired by this finding Julius Wolff proposed the famous Wolff's law of bone remodeling. The study of biomechanics ranges from the inner workings of a cell to the movement and development of limbs , to the mechanical properties of soft tissue , [6] and bones. Some simple examples of biomechanics research include the investigation of the forces that act on limbs, the aerodynamics of bird and insect flight , the hydrodynamics of swimming in fish , and locomotion in general across all forms of life, from individual cells to whole organisms.

With growing understanding of the physiological behavior of living tissues, researchers are able to advance the field of tissue engineering , as well as develop improved treatments for a wide array of pathologies including cancer. Biomechanics is also applied to studying human musculoskeletal systems. Such research utilizes force platforms to study human ground reaction forces and infrared videography to capture the trajectories of markers attached to the human body to study human 3D motion. Research also applies electromyography to study muscle activation, investigating muscle responses to external forces and perturbations.

Biomechanics is widely used in orthopedic industry to design orthopedic implants for human joints, dental parts, external fixations and other medical purposes. Biotribology is a very important part of it. It was earlier believed that badminton strokes were made with a wrist snap [5]. Further work showed the importance of radioulnar pronation, elbow extension, and wrist ulnar deviation [6]. Hence, the wrist snap belief was soon abolished. In a review study on underarm power strokes, subsequent qualitative analysis revealed that world class players gain a major proportion of power for the underarm forehand and clear high serve by pronating the forearm and medially rotating the upper arm [8].

Biomechanical Systems Technology (A 4-volume Set): (4) General Anatomy

The authors also found that backhand clears are performed using supination of the forearm and lateral rotation of the upper arm. The same authors have conducted various studies and presented multiple research papers that expanded on the concepts related to badminton stroke production. Thus, there is a trend away from assuming a superior role of the wrist in power strokes to an inferior role. It appears that the elbow and shoulder contribute the majority of power in a power stroke. It is yet to be determined the contribution of individual muscle groups to the power component and this maybe an avenue of future research with the potential of activating certain muscle groups to improve performance.

Studies have been conducted on the biomechanics of the forehand overhead jump smash, a lethal weapon used by every badminton player. Smash and jump smash performances were studied and it was noted that faster shuttle velocity of the jump smash may result from greater elbow angular velocity [9].

One study aimed to establish the temporal-spatial relationship between muscle activity and the smash stroke of skilled badminton players and concluded that controlling the distal muscles of the upper limb appears to be important for achieving accurate performance of the smash in badminton [10]. A study conducted on the biomechanics of the forehand and backhand stroke showed that skilled players reached significantly higher angular velocities for glenohumeral external rotation, elbow supination and wrist extension in the backhand stroke, compared to the less skilled players, but there were no such differences in the forehand stroke [11].

This suggests that although forehand is the more important stroke, the backhand is the one that players are working on as their career progresses. One study analysed the surface EMG activity of upper extremities between smash and jump smash by elite badminton players using two digital video cameras to obtain the 3D kinematics data of shuttlecock and measured the surface EMG signals of seven upper limb muscles [12].

The authors reported that there was no significant difference between the two smashes in initial shuttle velocity, but there was significant difference between the two smashes in the sequence of the surface EMG activity of the upper limb and that the jump smash exerted higher EMG activity than smash in the phase before contact point. Thus, it appears that preimpact EMG activation is the most important part of shuttle velocity, which has major implications for performance.

It will be beneficial to assess whether improving pre-smash activation improves shuttle velocity speeds of smash. These parameters can be measured either directly or indirectly. Equipment used for measurement includes tendon-force-measurement systems, novel force transducers, dynamometers, force gloves, and pinch gauges. Tendon forces from the extrinsic muscles of the hand are measured directly by instrumenting the tendon.

Kinetic hand models can be divided into analytical and experimental direct tendon-force-measurement models. Analytical models are based on the equation of static equilibrium at each joint of the finger and such models evaluate the tendon force based on an externally applied force. Six extrinsic muscles are commonly monitored in hand-function analysis using sEMG. Previous studies on muscle fatigue and characteristics based on the EMG signals have only considered static postures, not dynamic postures, and simply considered the relative muscle activity from the MVC.

However, in the case of dynamic gripping tasks, the muscle fiber depth and length change with time, and the distance between the sEMG electrode and muscle fiber also changes. A muscle—tendon moment difference is generated with changes in the muscle contraction velocity, and rapid motor unit recruitment by contraction shows flexible signal characteristics [].

Therefore, using EMG on dynamic contractions requires a different interpretation from static contractions. The biomechanical analysis of the hand is an interdisciplinary study of the mechanical movement and force of the hand's musculoskeletal system; it includes hand anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and EMG. Biomechanical analysis aims to provide design guidelines for hand tools and devices or for a safe working environment. This review paper provides fundamental knowledge on the hand biomechanics in terms of anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and EMG.

Hand anthropometry data can be used to design hand-guard products e. Hand anthropometry can be directly measured using various equipment and devices. In recent times, 3D scans are commonly used for this purpose because they can measure diverse hand areas precisely and easily. Hand anthropometry dimensions are largely divided into length, breadth, and circumference under the static condition.

In general, the length and breadth have 50 and 10 variables, respectively. When using hand anthropometry data, choosing the appropriate dimensions and number of populations and individuals for the purpose of the study is very important []. Previous studies have failed to consider the breadth and circumference of the thumb as measurement dimensions.

Thus, future research is required to measure the thumb dimensions. For accurate evaluation of kinematic variables, various fields commonly use a 3D motion analysis system. This system can obtain 3D data more reliably compared with other methods [41]. Many researchers have difficulties with selecting a marker attachment method to accurately measure hand functions. Thus, they are recommended for experiments conducted under dynamic conditions [].

These previous studies focused mainly on the flexion angle of the four fingers excluding the thumb. However, the thumb is the most important part of the hand and has a wide range of activities during hand functions []. Thus, future research will involve examining the ROM and hand functions of the thumb, and the various hand functions will be measured in 3D.

The technologies for kinetics evaluation can be roughly divided into direct and indirect measurements. In general, the external load is measured directly with instruments, and the internal load is predicted analytically through kinetic models. Many previous studies have focused on measuring the force, moment, and torque during hand functions. Evaluating the joint force, moment, and torque requires accurate anthropometry data such as the segment mass, center of mass, center of gravity, and radius of gyration.

Thus, accurate anthropometry data of the hand will be considered to develop a hand kinetics model in future research. In EMG, the most important factors are choosing suitable muscles, accurate attachment of the electrodes, and choosing a suitable signal-processing method for the research purpose. Previous studies on muscle fatigue and characteristics based on the EMG signals have only considered static postures, not dynamic hand functions. They simply considered the relative muscle activity from the MVC.

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However, in the case of dynamic hand functions, the muscle fiber depth and length change with time and distance, and therefore, changes occur between the sEMG electrode and muscle fiber. Moreover, a muscle—tendon moment difference is generated when the muscle contraction velocity changes, and rapid motor unit recruitment by contraction shows flexible signal characteristics []. Therefore, the EMG signal of dynamic hand functions should be interpreted differently compared with that of static hand functions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Saf Health Work v.

Saf Health Work. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Myung-Chul Jung: rk. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. Keywords: anthropometry, electromyography, hand function, kinematics, kinetics.


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Introduction The human hand is composed of a thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger, and palm, which includes the thenar eminence, the hypo thenar eminence, and creases. Methods For this review, a systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Elsevier Science, and ScienceDirect databases, and Google Scholar on studies published from to Hand anthropometry 3. Technology for hand anthropometry evaluation Hand anthropometry is important to the design of products for human hands.

Anatomical measurement variables In general, anthropometry for anatomical measurement variables is divided into general and application surveys. Table 1 Summary of hand anthropometry dimensions. Variable No. Open in a separate window.


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  6. Hand kinematics 4. Technology for hand kinematics Numerous studies have evaluated the angle, velocity, trajectory, and acceleration during various hand functions. Range of motion are presented in degrees. Flexion angles are presented in degrees. Hand kinetics 5. Technology for kinetics evaluation Studies on hand kinetics have analyzed the force, moment, and torque of the fingers and tendons. Kinetic hand model There are two common methods for analyzing tendon forces, namely, 1 analytical models and 2 experimental direct tendon-force-measurement models.

    The forces are presented in Newton. Hand EMG 6. Hand muscles and technology of surface EMG Surface EMG sEMG can be used to evaluate various biomechanical characteristics, including localized muscle activity, fatigue, and conduction velocity [91]. Muscle Action Origin Insertion Location FDS Flexion of PIP and MCP joints Common tendon from the medial epicondyle of the humerus, coronoid process of the ulna, and oblique line of the radius All of these tendons are inserted in the volar surface of the 2 nd phalanx Point index finger to biceps tendon and insert needle electrode from the ulna to the tip of the index finger.

    With the index finger, bisect these 2 points and insert a needle electrode at the tip of the index finger to a depth of 1. The electrode travels through the ED. Signal-processing technology for EMG evaluation To evaluate the amplitude of an EMG signal, many signal-processing methods have been suggested, such as the mean absolute value, root mean square RMS , envelope detection, and ensemble averaging [98]. Discussion This paper presents a literature review of some technologies and methodologies used for hand-function analysis based on a biomechanical approach.

    Summary and conclusion 8. Hand anthropometry Hand anthropometry data can be used to design hand-guard products e. Hand kinematics For accurate evaluation of kinematic variables, various fields commonly use a 3D motion analysis system. Hand kinetics The technologies for kinetics evaluation can be roughly divided into direct and indirect measurements.

    Hand EMG In EMG, the most important factors are choosing suitable muscles, accurate attachment of the electrodes, and choosing a suitable signal-processing method for the research purpose. Conflicts of interest All contributing authors declare no conflicts of interest. References 1. Jenkins D. Elsevier; Taylor C.

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    Joints and levers in the human body -- 3D Animation--Education Biology

    Nordenskiold U. Assessments of disability in women with rheumatoid arthritis in relation to grip force and pain. Disabil Rehabil. Pienimaki T. Associations between pain, grip strength, and manual tests in the treatment evaluation of chronic tennis elbow. Clin J Pain. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain. Clin Rehabil. Sohn M. Effects of experimental muscle pain on mechanical properties of single motor units in human masseter. Ciubotariu A. The influence of muscle pain and fatigue on the activity of synergistic muscles of the leg.

    Eur J Appl Physiol. Yamaji S. The influence of different target values and measurement times on the decreasing force curve during sustained static gripping work. J Physiol Anthropol. Lee K. Biomechanics and physical ergonomics. In: Haight J. Handbook of loss prevention engineering. Wiley-VCH; Garrett J. The adult human hand: some anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.


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      Jorgensen C. Sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in very early rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. Chao E. World Scientific; Biomechanics of the hand. Ozsoy U. Method selection in craniofacial measurements: advantages and disadvantages of 3D digitization method. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. Vicinus J. X-ray anthropometry of the hand. Anthropometry of the air force female hand. Report No.

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